Pendennis Castle

Pendennis Castle crowns a headland a mile east of Falmouth. The name suggests a Dark Age hillfort but any remains are buried beneath the later rampart. What now stands is an Elizabethan artillery fortress surrounding one of Henry VIII’s coastal forts. Erected in 1540-45, when the Reformation had made England a target for invasion, the castle protected the entrance to Carrick Roades, the large inlet pf the sea which could have offered a sheltered landing place to the fleet of the Catholic powers. St. Mawes Castle was placed on the opposite shore and the guns of the two forts commanded the mile-long sheet of water between them. Pendennis is unusual among the Henrician coastal forts in having such an elevated …

Palace of Westminster

The Houses of Parliament occupy the site of a royal palace which flourished from the time of Edward the Confessor until Henry VIII moved to Whitehall and St. James’s. Although the Tower of London could accommodate the royal entourage, most kings found Westminster more congenial than the volatile city of London. There was convenient transport between the two by barge along the Thames. Parliament’s relationship with the palace is an old one, since the House of Lords regularly met in the private royal apartments from the fourteenth century and the House of Commons used the collegiate chapel. Several royal palaces were unfortified even in Norman times and Westminster was one of them. The precinct wall that surrounded the palace never …

Norwich Castle

Norwich and York were the biggest towns of medieval England after London, and Norwich was saddled with a royal castle within a year of the Norman Conquest. The site, at the heart of the old city, is a natural hillock that was scraped into a formidable motte -though a motte large enough to be regarded as an inner bailey. A car park occupies the site of the outer bailey. The strength of this earth and timber fortification is attested in 1075 during the rebellion of some disaffected barons. On the failure of this revolt, the Earl of Norfolk fled abroad, leaving his wife to hold the castle against William I’s supporters, which she commendably did for a siege lasting three …

Naworth Castle

Naworth Castle has become a fine mansion without sacrificing its medieval character. Ranulf de Dacre obtained a license to crenellate in 1335. His castle, on a promontory two miles east of Brampton, consists of an irregular, quadrilateral courtyard surrounded by a curtain wall. The only level approach is from the southeast and this side has a tower at each end, named Dacre and Howard after the two prominent families who have lived here since the fourteenth century. Dacre Tower is the original tower house. Five stories high with corner turrets, it flanks the original gateway through the curtain though it does not project at all from the southeast front. The doorway into its vaulted ground floor preserves an iron yert. …

Lumley Castle

Lumley Castle, in spite of later remodeling is one of the finest examples of a fully developed quadrangular castle with ranges of buildings on all sides. Bolton Castle is the best-known Northern example and Lumley resembles it quite closely. It has the same oblong corner towers, each one a tower house in its own right, and the same attention to defense within the courtyard as well as outside. But whereas Bolton is largely a ruin, Lumley has come down to us intact and is merely disfigured by some eighteenth-century alterations. The castle stands a mile east of Chester-le-Street on high ground, which suddenly drops to the stream known as Lumley Beck. Ralph, Lord Lumley, obtained permission to crenellate his house …

Lincoln Castle

Castle and cathedral have faced each other across the hilltop since Norman times. Lincoln Castle was raised over the southwest quarter of the citadel by order of William the Conqueror in 1068. The site had previously been densely occupied – Domesday Book tells us that 166 houses were destroyed to make way for the castle. Its stonewall is mentioned as early as 1115 and Henry I is regarded as the likely builder. The high curtain, still intact though frequently patched up in later centuries, preserves portions of herringbone masonry confirming its early Norman date. It stands on top of an earth rampart surrounding a large, roughly square bailey. A rare feature is the presence of not one but two mottes, …

Leicester Castle

Leicester originated as the Roman Ratae, was occupied by the Danes as one of their Five Boroughs, then fortified against them following English re-conquest of the Danelaw. Hugh de Grantmesnil became Sheriff of Leicester after the Norman Conquest and he probably founded the castle on the King’s behalf. Nothing is left of Leicester’s Roman and medieval town wall. Furthermore, the castle has only survived as a number of isolated fragments. It stood beside the River Soar. Castle Yard marks the site of the inner bailey and the truncated Norman motte can still be seen there. The defenses of the bailey have perished but there are two interesting domestic survivals. The seventeenth century façade of the Court House conceals a remarkable …

Sports Nutrition Protein For Your Exercise Regimen

Let’s be honest about this. Every athlete wants to be considered as somebody in his or her chosen field. And this is true with every single athlete. This is true about you. But if you want to be recognized as an athlete, you’ve got to have the right nutrients in your regular food intake, specifically sports nutrition protein. While it is true that drinking enough water and eating a balanced diet is enough for the regular guy, sports people — you included — need additional nourishment, for the efficient production of energy and fuel. Your rigorous training must be accompanied by the right amount of sports nutrition protein. This will help you maximize your athletic talents and in the process …

Sports nutrition products -— a need or just a marketing invention?

Even if you are into sports, you’ll only need your regular diet plus plenty of water. Thus, you do not need a sport nutrition product. Right? Wrong. The need for sports and sport nutrition product Records of antiquities show that athletics has been an integral part of earliest man’s life. Athletic life was originally meant for survival through gathering food or for self protection. Later, it developed into a contest for strength, speed, skill, and mental sharpness. With the passage of time, these activities evolved into what we now know as different forms of exercises, or sports. Our ancestors even then, fully understand the need of our body for exercise and other forms of physical activities. They instinctively know that …

Nutritional Health in Sports

Nutritional health is very important. The nutrients that we take in are practically the reasons why we are healthy or why we are not. It could also be a grid to determine if we can eventually become sports superstars or not. Nutritional health may be the main reason why you are tall, strong and have the skills to be good in sports. This is also vital for having a strong mind and a healthy body because of the fact that these nutrients fuel almost all bodily functions. In reality, many people fail to achieve a high level of nutritional health. Some reasons why they are not adequately nourished is because of their lack of information. Some people do not even …

Want that great physique? Read a sports nutrition article

Lots of people dream of becoming world-class athletes. They know that becoming one takes lots of patience and training that can test one’s physical and emotional limits to the outmost. Since the business of sports has become more and more lucrative, the concept of sports nutrition has grown into Herculean proportions. It is a good thing then that those resources such as sports nutrition articles have proliferated in cyberspace. It gives people endless amount of information on how to make their bodies fit for competition. Here are the summaries of some several of the sports nutrition articles that can give Internet researchers gems of information on athletic fitness. From one of the most authoritative web sites on anything under the …

Sports nutrition and exercise in the ancient times

Believe it or not, sports nutrition and exercise have been part of man’s life and his culture since the earliest time. Of course, sports during this time was known as athletics. Earliest forms of athletics, however, were part of man’s basic need for survival, either to gather food or protect his family from physical harm. To a simple cave man who knows nothing about martial arts, a sturdy bone from his last dinner may serve as a weapon against wild animals. This bone remnant, coupled with some sharpened stone chips from his cave, is used for hunting. Eventually, his regular hunting activities had developed into some form of physical acts, without so much need to hunt. Athletics was thus born. …

Sports Nutrition and Quick Food Fixes

Athletes are busy people. They try to balance training with work, school, family and other activities. With all these responsibilities, athletes consume a lot of energy each day. Food preparation can become a challenge but it is a challenge that athletes need to face since good sports nutrition help to adequately fuel work-outs and improve performance and recovery. Eating well should be a part of an athlete’s overall training plan. But buying well is a requirement for eating well. Nutritious meals begin at the grocery store. If you purchase the right ingredients, it’s a cinch to whip up a nutritious and flavorful meal. Stocking up with healthy staples is critical to good sports nutrition and will give you many options …

Worldwide Sports Nutrition Pure Protein Drink Fruit Punch

Pure protein drink fruit punch is one of the most popular sports nutrition worldwide next to pure protein drink in vanilla and chocolate. This protein drink fruit punch helps athletes improve their physical endurance, game performance, increate energy and mental alertness. This sports nutrition known worldwide contains a large dose of protein, which an athlete needs to build more muscles. It is also packed with vitamins, minerals and other necessary elements to boost energy and strength for your body. These great tasting, pure protein drink fruit punch are convenient meal replacements for those who are in a high protein, less fat diet or as a meal addition for those who are in high protein and carbohydrates diet. For busy people …

The Best Sports Nutrition A Day Or Hours Before An Endurance Sports Competition

What is the best sports nutrition for an athlete? There is no definitive answer to this. No athlete has the same need. It all depends on the physique of an athlete and the kind of sports that he or she is into. So, if you are contemplating on joining an endurance sports competition, the best sports nutrition for you is the nutritional table fit for an athlete that expects long hours of vigorous physical activity and mental alertness even when tired. Endurance sports test the physical and mental fortitude of an athlete; if you are not well fed for this kind of competition, it would be better for you if you would back off from the competition. Best Sports Nutrition …

The Best Sports Nutrition Before A Competition

What is the best sports nutrition for an athlete? There is no definitive answer to this. No athlete has the same need. It all depends on the physique of an athlete and the kind of sports that he or she is into. So, if you are contemplating on joining an endurance sports competition, the best sports nutrition for you is the nutritional table fit for an athlete that expects long hours of vigorous physical activity and mental alertness even when tired. Endurance sports test the physical and mental fortitude of an athlete; if you are not well fed for this kind of competition, it would be better for you if you would back off from the competition. Best Sports Nutrition …